Degelman, D., Albertson Owens, S. A., Reynolds, T., & Riggs, J. (1991). Age and gender differences in beliefs about personal power and injustice. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 33, 101-111.
College students and community-dwelling older adults were compared on Injustice and Personal Power scales and measures of religiosity. Personal Power scores varied significantly as a function of age and gender. These differences were due to significantly lower belief in Personal Power for the group of older women. As predicted, Injustice scores were significantly higher for women than for men, reflecting a greater belief that conditions can be unjust. No significant difference between older and younger adults on Injustice scores was obtained. Significant positive correlations between measures of religiosity and Injustice scores were obtained, while religiosity was not significantly correlated with Personal Power scores. This pattern of results suggests that there is value in utilizing separate measures of Injustice and Personal Power. Suggestions are made for further examining the complex relationship among demographic variables, belief in a just world, and measures of religiosity.